The UK government has revealed more about its Electronic Travel Authorisation (ETA) – described as “a new requirement for people who do not need a visa to come to the UK”.
The government says: “By the end of 2024, ETAs will be a requirement worldwide for visitors who do not need a visa for short stays.”
The ETA will be rolled out from November 2023. Citizens of Qatar will be the first to need one. Shortly afterwards it will be extended to other citizens of the Gulf region plus Jordan.
The immigration minister, Robert Jenrick, says: “ETAs will enhance our border security by increasing our knowledge about those seeking to come to the UK and preventing the arrival of those who pose a threat. It will also improve travel for legitimate visitors.”
The government says: “By applying for an ETA in advance, visitors will benefit from smooth and efficient travel. The application process will be quick, light touch and entirely digital with most visitors applying via a mobile app and receiving a swift decision on their application.”
For British travellers there will be no direct impact. But travel industry figures say rules attached to the ETA will disadvantage UK airlines and tourism, particularly to Northern Ireland.
These are the key questions and answers.
What is planned?
Most visitors to the UK do not need to go through the complex and expensive business of applying for a British visa; they simply turn up with their passport and apply for entry.
But the new online permit, the Electronic Travel Authorisation, will soon be mandatory.
The ETA is loosely modelled on the US Esta and is electronically linked to the traveller’s passport. It does not apply to UK and Irish citizens. The cost is £10. The permit will be valid for repeated journeys within two years or until the passport expires, whichever is sooner.
The roll-out begins with Qatari nationals travelling to or via the UK on 15 November 2023. The starting point is not relevant – it is the traveller’s nationality.
The programme will be extended on 22 February 2024 to nationals of Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia and the UAE, ahead of a global roll-out by the end of next year.
How do travellers obtain an ETA?
Online through a UK government website or via an ETA app. The government says: “Individuals will need to provide biometric details and answer a set of suitability questions. This will ensure we have information on those seeking to come to the UK helping to prevent dangerous individuals, such as criminals, entering the UK.”
A decision on each case is expected “usually” within three days. In practice, existing similar schemes in the US, Canada and elsewhere deliver approval more quickly.
Who will check the ETA?
Ferries from France to Dover, Eurostar trains to London and Eurotunnel shuttles to Folkestone have “juxtaposed controls” and UK Border Force staff will check the permit while the traveller is in Continental Europe.
For the majority of travellers, airlines and ferry companies will be expected to verify the ETA status before the passenger departs to the UK.
On arrival, UK Border Force will check the ETA and ask supplementary questions before deciding whether or not to allow the traveller in. The government says: “An ETA does not guarantee entry to the UK.”
Travellers from the Republic of Ireland to Northern Ireland will not face checks but are expected to have an ETA anyway.
What about transit passengers?
The UK government has decided to become an outlier by insisting that all connecting travellers must obtain an ETA. This will make London Heathrow airport a more challenging transit hub than the main continental European competitors, plus airports such as Istanbul and Dubai.
The almost-worldwide convention is that passengers who are connecting from one gate to another at a hub – not passing through passport control – need only meet the requirements for their final destination.
But when the ETA scheme takes full effect, all passengers except British and Irish nationals will need a permit – even if they are simply switching from one British Airways plane to another at Heathrow Terminal 5, or making a Star Alliance connection at Terminal 2.
Travel industry experts predict overseas travellers with a choice of routings will switch to other hubs to avoid extra red tape and cost – harming Heathrow and leading to a slump in customers for British Airways and Virgin Atlantic.
About one-third of passengers at Heathrow are in transit.
Rob Burgess, editor of the frequent flyer website Head for Points, says: “Why would anyone pay £40 for a family of four to get an ETA purely so they can transit in the UK on the way from, say, the US to Croatia? All of the other European hub carriers will be laughing as they pick up this business.”
Paul Charles, former Virgin Atlantic communications director and director of The PC Agency, says: “BA and Virgin Atlantic rely on transit passengers to fill their long-haul flights, make a profit and employ more people. Taxing transit will turn away tens of thousands of people who will find an easier hub.”
What does the government say?
A Home Office spokesperson says: “Strengthening our border remains one of the government’s top priorities and the introduction of the Electronic Travel Authorisation (ETA) scheme will enhance our border security by increasing our knowledge about those seeking to come to the UK and preventing the arrival of those who pose a threat, including those transiting through the UK.
“Requiring transit passengers to obtain an ETA will stop transit being a future loophole for people to use to avoid needing an ETA.”
Ministers say the ETA will mirror the Esta required by the United States for connecting passengers transiting at American airports.
Correct: if I’m changing planes in the US I need an Esta…
There is a crucial difference: all passengers in transit through the United States are required to clear Customs & Border Protection and be legally admitted to the US. In theory they could decide, instead of transferring at Atlanta, Chicago or Houston, to stay in America for up to three months.
This policy does not apply at Heathrow (or elsewhere in Europe) for international-to-international journeys. UK Border Force will not check passengers on arrival at Heathrow if they are continuing their journey internationally.
Furthermore, few US airports rely on transit passengers for business in the way that Heathrow does.
Besides the potential financial damage to airlines and Heathrow airport, the government decision could also impact British passengers. A number of routes and frequencies are viable only because of the volume of connecting passengers. If services are cut, choice will reduce and fares could rise.
A spokesperson for the airport says: “Heathrow is a strong hub and Europe’s largest airport. Transiting passengers play a key role in supporting routes to many long-haul destinations boosting trade, tourism and investment opportunities.
“The government should ensure visa and border policies do not generate any competitive disadvantage for the UK.”
Any other objections?
Yes: from the inbound tourism industry, particularly in Northern Ireland. The UK has already excluded more than 200 million European Union citizens from entry by insisting they carry passports rather than their national ID cards. Bringing in an ETA will add one more hurdle.
There is special concern in Northern Ireland. Typically visitors to the island of Ireland will arrive in Dublin or, for some US travellers, Shannon. They enter the Republic and typically travel around by car, public transport or tour coach.
At present they can enter Northern Ireland without formality, to visit attractions such as Titanic Belfast, the Giant’s Causeway or the Game of Thrones studio tour. By the end of 2024 they will all legally require an ETA to cross the (almost invisible) border.
Individual tourists may inadvertently break the law by crossing the border and remaining blissfully unaware of their transgression.
But tour groups will follow the rules. Operators will need to ensure every passenger on the bus has an ETA – or simply to exclude Northern Ireland from itineraries.
What could the effect be?
At present 60 per cent of non-UK tourists to Northern Ireland also visit the Republic, according to the Northern Ireland Tourism Alliance – which says the plan “will be hugely detrimental to tourism on the island”. The group estimates visitors from Europe and North America could fall by 25 per cent. It says: “The risk is that many global tour operators will exclude Belfast and NI from their itineraries as no longer a feasible option.”
The government in London has confirmed that there will be no exemptions for tourists remaining solely within the island of Ireland.
The Northern Ireland minister, Steve Baker, said: “It is the Government’s position that we should not create a loophole through the ETA scheme.
“I hope that we will be able to work together to ensure that there is a consistent and coherent communication strategy to ensure that tourists know they must register for an ETA and must continue to comply with the UK’s immigration requirements.”